How Did the Orthodox Church React to the Protestant Reformation?
The Reformation stirred up many concerns, including the question of what the role of the sacraments was. This question is crucial to understanding Luther’s arguments for reforming the church. Fortunately, the Church did not simply reject the Reformation. In fact, it took a position on most Protestant contentions. Specifically, Western Catholics took a position on the dual procession of the Holy Ghost (a theological error that Catholics and Protestants agree is unbiblical), the use of leavened bread, and baptism by aspersion.
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Luther’s arguments for reforming the church
Luther was an early evangelical Protestant and had problems with the Church. He rejected clerical celibacy and married a runaway nun, Katharina von Bora, in 1525. Together they had six children. Luther’s reformation of the Church was aimed at making the Bible more accessible to the common people. His German translation of the New Testament was highly influential.
Luther’s ideas and arguments for reforming the church sparked an entire religious movement. He nailed his ninety-five theses to the door of a church and invited other scholars to debate his ideas. In his time, debate was the normal means of learning. Luther’s arguments for reforming the church became so popular that it influenced the Protestant Church, and nearly every aspect of society. Luther’s arguments are still relevant today.
Cyril Lucaris’ response
The Protestant Reformation was a period of change in the Western Church that affected both the Roman Catholic Church and the Greek Orthodox Church. Cyril Lucaris, a Greek Patriarch who served in Constantinople in the sixteenth century, was influenced by the Protestant reformation and attempted to reform Orthodoxy in a Calvinist direction.
Cyril’s Calvinism was rejected in the sixteenth century by the Orthodox synod, who condemned him for abandoning the patristic consensus. This condemnation led to Cyril’s execution by strangulation on orders of the Ottoman Sultan. His martyrdom, however, made him a Hieromartyr in the Orthodox Church. However, his legacy as a “Calvinist Patriarch” is controversial among the Orthodox.
Luther’s challenge to sacraments
In the middle of the fifteenth century, Martin Luther took a stand against the church. In the eyes of Luther, the Roman Catholic church had become corrupt and had distanced itself from its flock. He argued that God’s true word was found only in the Bible.
Luther’s challenge to sacrament practices in the orthodox church reflected his growing distaste for the Catholic Church. He thought the Catholic Church was exploiting people by offering indulgences. He argued that the indulgences went against the Christian faith and its teachings about sin and penance.
Luther’s criticism of justification by faith alone
One of the most prominent criticisms of justification by faith alone in the dox church comes from Martin Luther. He was a scholar of Scripture and taught biblical theology at Wittenberg University. His lectures helped establish the doctrine of justification by faith alone.
Luther’s criticisms of justification by faith alone in the dox church aimed to restore the traditional understanding of justification by faith alone in Christ alone. He viewed justification by faith alone as a means of salvation that has nothing to do with our works. He believed that our works and good deeds are ineffective in earning the grace and righteousness that we need.
Luther’s challenge to ecumenical councils
The Reformation shifted the focus of the Christian church away from the ecclesiastical authorities to the Holy Scriptures. Protestant reformers, like Luther, rejected some Roman Catholic practices and believed that they were unbiblical. They also rejected the veneration of holy relics and mysteries.
Some Lutherans disagreed with the Catholic Church regarding the authority of the pope and the role of bishops. Other Protestant groups, such as the Evangelical Alliance, hoped to unite Protestants to condemn child labor and poor factory conditions. The Evangelical Alliance described unity as “a new thing in the church’s history.” In addition, the World Council of Churches was born out of a missionary conference in Edinburgh, Scotland, which brought together Protestant, Orthodox, and Anglican churches.
Luther’s impact on the orthodox church
During the protestant reformation, Martin Luther’s views on the nature of the church began to change. In 1517, he was arrested for refusing to recant his beliefs, and his actions were partially motivated by a papal bull. The pope declared Luther a heretic on January 3, 1521. Luther continued to write anti-papal propaganda even after his arrest.
In 1521, Luther returned to Wittenberg to lead the reform movement, but the reform movement had expanded beyond his influence. It had become more political, and other reformers took the reins. Meanwhile, a Peasants’ War swept across Germany.