Orthodox Christians and Muslims are two very different groups that have very different views and opinions on a number of issues. They differ in their approach to politics, religion, and social status. The difference between these two groups is the reason why the Middle East is so unstable.
Crusades are wars fought by orthodox Christians against non-Christian peoples, especially Muslims. These wars were started by popes, and their main purpose was to protect Christian territory in the Holy Land from paganism.
The first crusade took place between 1096 and 1099. During the Crusades, a large group of knights, prelates, and laymen travelled to the Holy Land, where they fought against paganism and Muslims.
Among the most important actors in these wars were the Crusader states, which were usually 12th and 13th-century feudal kingdoms. They were strategically important, because they were a buffer zone between Muslim and Christian sultanates.
Crusaders had an array of motives, from religious salvation to territorial advantage. In the end, they established four primary Crusader states: the Kingdom of Jerusalem, Antioch, the Principality of Antioch, and the County of Tripoli. However, many historians believe that more than one crusade took place, and that the First Crusade was only the beginning.
When the crusades began, the Byzantine government was in turmoil. Alexios I Komnenos, the emperor of the Byzantine Empire, was seeking military help against the Seljuk Turks. The pope of Rome, Urban II, responded with a call for an armed pilgrimage to the holy city of Jerusalem.
Despite the fact that the First Crusade was accompanied by slaughter, it did have positive impacts on the Christian world. It led to a split between the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches.
Lebanese sectarian civil war
Lebanon’s sectarian civil war has been a long, bloody conflict that has claimed an estimated 150,000 lives and displaced hundreds of thousands of people. The region has been caught up in a series of proxy battles involving foreign powers and militias.
Lebanese politics are dominated by the upper class of the country’s Christian population. They control the economy and political system. But they are ineffective in solving social problems and in providing the public services needed.
A recent explosion in the port of Beirut left hundreds dead and thousands injured. It occurred after a years-long economic and political crisis. Angry protestors flooded the downtown area of the capital and demanded a new political system.
The government resigned after the blast. In the weeks following the incident, Lebanon was caught up in a violent stalemate. There were two governments in the country – one in the West and the other in the East.
After the assassination of Rafiq al-Hariri, two big demonstrations took place. One was organized by the Free Patriotic Movement, which was led by Saad al-Hariri, and the other was led by the Progressive Socialist Party, which was led by Walid Jumblatt.
Many were angered by the failure of the government to renew a landfill contract. Others hoped to replace the entire political system.
Conflicts in the Middle East
Religion has been a major determinant of conflict in the Middle East. This is mainly because religion affects policies and attitudes. It is also a driver of violence. Some of these conflicts can be mitigated by using religion as a fulcrum for an interfaith dialogue.
One of the most significant religious developments of the 20th century was the dismantling of the Ottoman caliphate. This was a period of great change in the Middle East. Many Muslim constructs were demolished and replaced with militantly secular regimes that did not support traditional values.
However, the politics of religion still has its place. Using religion as a means to resolve a conflict may not be as effective as a strategy of statebuilding and diplomacy. Instead, it may lead to further escalation.
The politics of religion may be more complicated than most people realize. For example, in the context of the Middle East, it is important to understand the historical, cultural and economic factors that drive conflict and its solutions. Ultimately, a comprehensive solution is needed to achieve peace in the region.
A good starting point is a look at the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The document was adopted in 1948 and contains a number of key rights. These include the right to food, shelter and a fair trial.